Paris 17th arrondissement Etoile
As previously mentioned, Place de l'Etoile is located at the "summit" of what was known as Roule hillock which was leveled between 1768 and 1774 by Perronet so that the road leading from Place Louis XV (Concorde) to Neuilly "was of an equal gradient". This hillock was already named "Etoile de Chaillot" in 1730 as a few paths crossed here. Although hardly majestic at the time, the first foundations of the Arc de Triomphe were laid as early as 1806. The “Mur des Fermiers Généraux” circumnavigated it to the east, and two large pavilions serving as tollgates were built by Ledoux. In the 1860’s as Paris grew and the tollgate was moved to Porte de Neuilly (Maillot), they were demolished. Its current layout was defined in 1854 and three years later seven new roads were opened: avenue Friedland, avenue Reine-Hortense (Hoche), avenue Roi Jerome (Mac-Mahon), avenue Essling (Carnot), avenue Eylau (Victor Hugo), avenue d’Iena and avenue Josephine (Marceau). The Etoile neighborhood is on the edge of three arrondissements: the 8th, the 16th and the 17th. The twelve impressive avenues spreading out from Etoile create a remarkable architectural ensemble.